"Educational games as a means of development of sensory representations in children of preschool age with mental retardation"
Accelerating the pace of social change, rapid scientific and technological progress, define the need for improvement and intensification of various spheres of professional life and, above all, the intensification of the process of learning children with mental retardation.
Preschool age is a unique period of human life. Its uniqueness lies in the special sensitivity, the sensitivity to the assimilation of the surrounding reality; in preschooler activity – fact-finding, subject–manipulative, educational.
Of particular importance are the accumulation and enrichment of sensory experience, which is the first step in further understanding of many aspects of mathematical reality. If your child has missing images views, included rote memorization, which allows to keep in memory certain concepts, but not for a long time. And the main thing is mechanical, formal memorization has limited application of knowledge. Transfer them in a similar situation is produced with difficulty, and in unusual – becomes impossible.
Preschool children with DSD do not know how to plan their actions, control them; not guided by the ultimate goal, often "jump" from one to another, not finish.
Using gaming technology children master the content of the initial sensory representations and concepts in accordance with the major categories that constitute mathematical reality, and available for learning in preschool children (the formation of ideas about color, size, shape, space and ways of knowing). On the basis of detailed practical actions with objects, visual material and conditional characters is the development of thinking and the elements of the search activity. Both serves as a Foundation for further education of children.
The knowledge given in an entertaining form, in the form of games children assimilate faster, stronger and lighter than those which involve a long “soulless” exercises. It is important to use games in the way to preserve and synthesized elements of cognitive, educational and game communication.
To educate children with mental retardation are of interest to the process of cognition of sensory standards, the need to overcome difficulties, the ability to find their own way to solve cognitive tasks, and not be afraid of mistakes. To teach a child to learn with interest and pleasure, to believe in themselves.
The leading method in the solution of the topic are games. It is in the game are revealed and developed different sides of the child's personality, met many of the intellectual and emotional needs, it character. The basis of gaming technologies were taken developing games B. P. Nikitin.
In correction work try to use diverse educational games and exercises, they are specified and fixed ideas about geometric shapes, basic colors and shades, temporal and spatial relations. The game also contribute to the development of all mental processes such as observation, attention, memory, thinking. They can evolve as the complexity of software maintenance, and the use of vivid illustrative material allows to diversify the game, but to make it more attractive for children.
In the classroom educational games B. P. Nikitin I enter once a week. In the older group is familiar with games and game rules. From a variety of educational games I have opted for three games B. P. Nikitina:
1. "Fold the square"
2. "Fold the square"
Getting part of the square and set "Fold the square", the child performs several types of work, different in content and complexity. Children understand that part, sometimes a very strange shape, can be folded square. A preschooler understands the need to flip all the pieces on the front side and pull the pieces by color or shades of colors. Thus there is practice in the development of color perception and ingenuity in solving problems parts of a whole, their possible relationships and mutual settlement. Gradual complication of tasks allows the child to move independently.
In the game "Fold pattern" of well-developed children's ability for analysis and synthesis, critical thinking operations used in almost any intellectual activity, and the ability to combine, necessary for development work. The complication of the patterns is gradually: first the child puts a pattern of colored faces, and then from two-tone. For the development of imagination, the children themselves come up with a name for the pattern.
In the game "unique" Jobs children can be given as a drawing, and orally. Children are introduced to color, size, spatial arrangement, taking the first steps in a three-dimensional space. It teaches clearness, attentiveness, accuracy, accuracies.
Taking into account the peculiarities of psycho-physiological development of children with mental retardation, it is clear that this type of work requires a systematic and consistent approach. Such children have difficulty in discerning the differentiation of common, special and singular properties, in the sequence of examination and discernment of forms. They are characterized by fragmentation, poverty perception, the weak trend of the processes of analysis and comparison. These same features appear when meeting with a magnitude of items.
For children with mental retardation characterized by reduced color sensitivity. They usually correctly distinguish between white and black, rich red, blue. Differentiate color but not unsaturated, do not perceive shades and colors, adjacent on the spectrum, confuse their names.
As a result of purposeful activity in the classroom for the development of sensory processes pre-schoolers need to learn:
— focus on touch standards;
— to recognize objects by the given criteria;
— compare objects by external signs;
— classify objects by shape, size, color, functional purpose;
— to give a full description of objects and phenomena;
to see the time frame of their activities;
— to navigate in space;
— purposefully perform actions according to the instructions;
— to spontaneously coordinate their movements and actions;
— to mediate its activity.