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The first grader-a new stage in your child's life and your family 2018
The first grader - a new stage in your child's life...and your family.
The first year in school is not only one of the most difficult stages in a child's life, but also a kind of probation period for parents.
Enroll in school - a turning point in the life of every child. The beginning of schooling radically change its whole way of life.
Features the child's adaptation to school depends largely on our behaviour and in our power to make the process was the most painless.
The term "Adaptation" was introduced by the German psychologist A. Ubert. Adaptation – changes the body, aimed at adaptation to new conditions.
Adaptation of the first grader to the school can last from two to six months. The most difficult time for the body of the child – the first two to three weeks.
Conditions for the occurrence of psychological adaptation of children for school:
- changing the social position (preschool student,
- new and challenging responsibilities
- a change of leading activity (from play to study,
- changing social environment.
Types of adaptation: physiological, social, psychological.
Physiological adaptation can be divided into several stages:
1. The first 2-3 weeks of training called "physiological storm". During this period, children spend a significant part of the resources of the organism. This explains the fact that in September, many first graders are sick. I want to draw attention of parents to the fact that not only chronic diseases affect the successful adaptation of children at school, but also frequent colds, which many parents do not attach much importance. Consider at least the common cold. From various ailments, he seems the most harmless. However, it is impossible not to note that shortness of nasal breathing does not provide income sufficient oxygen to the lungs and to the brain, which leads to fatigue, low efficiency and, eventually, to the educational backlog.
2. Unstable device. The child's body finds an acceptable, near-optimal variants of reactions to the new conditions.
3. The period of relatively stable fixture. The body responds to load with a lower voltage.
Many parents tend to underestimate the complexity of the period of physiological adaptation of first-graders. However, some children lose weight by the end of the 1st quarter, many marked decrease in blood pressure (a sign of fatigue, and some - significant improvement (signs of fatigue). Manifestations of difficulties of addiction and the surge of the body can also cause moodiness children at home, reduced ability for self-regulation of behavior.
Socio - psychological adaptation is a process of active adaptation, in contrast to the physiological adaptation that takes place automatically. Changing social status of the former baby - there is a new social role "student". You can consider this the birth of a social "I" of the child.
The change in the external position entails a change of consciousness of the individual 1-grader, is a reassessment of values. What was meaningful before, becomes secondary, and what is relevant to learning, becomes more valuable.
In the period of 6-7 years there have been profound changes in the emotional sphere of the child.
In preschool childhood, when faced with setbacks or received unflattering reviews about your appearance, child, of course, felt any resentment or annoyance, but it does not impact so dramatically on the formation of his personality as a whole. In the period of crisis, 7 (6) years of the child's intellectual development, it developed the ability to generalize entail a synthesis of experiences. Thus, the chain of failures (in studies in communication) can lead to the formation of a stable complex of inferiority. This "acquisition" in 6-7 years negatively affects the development of self-esteem of the child, of his claims.
This feature of the psyche of children accounted for in school - the first year of study is unbiased, that is, when assessing pupils ' work are not used markers, increased emphasis on qualitative analysis of their activities. Parents should also consider the generalization of experiences when communicating with your son or daughter to notice all the smallest achievement of the child to evaluate the child, and his actions, talking about it, to note that all this is temporary, to maintain the activity of the child in overcoming various difficulties.
Another consequence of the generalization of experiences is the emergence of the inner life of the child. Gradually, it entails developing the capability to assess future action in advance, in terms of its results and consequences. This mechanism is overcome by a childlike.
Unpleasant for parents crisis a manifestation of the separation of internal and external children's lives often become affectation, mannerisms, unnatural behavior, a tendency to be fussy and conflict.
All these external features begin to disappear, when a first grader recovering from the crisis and comes directly to the Junior school age.
Thus, the chain of failures (in studies in communication) can lead to the formation of a stable complex of inferiority. This "acquisition" in the 6 -7 years negatively affects the development of self-esteem of the child, of his claims.
Conditional on the degree of adaptation of all children can be divided into three groups:
The first group of children adapting to school for the first two months of training. Over the same period is the most sensitive physiological adaptation. These children relatively quickly adapting to a new team, make friends, they are almost always in a good mood, they are calm, friendly, friendly, communicate well with peers, doing school duties.
The second group of children is a longer adaptation period of non-compliance with the behavior requirements of the school delayed: children cannot accept education, communication with the teacher, classmates – they can play in the classroom or to sort things out with a friend, do not respond to the comments teachers or their reaction – tears, resentment.
The third group is children who have social - psychological adaptation is related to significant difficulties: there was a negative form of behavior, a dramatic manifestation of negative emotions. Often they do not learn the curriculum, they are characterized by difficulties in learning writing, reading, counting, etc., Problems accumulate and become complex.
The most typical symptoms of maladjustment:
sleep disorders; appetite disorders; complaints of fatigue, headache, nausea, etc.; compulsive movements (twitching of muscles, cough, biting nails) violation of tempo of speech (hesitation). neurotic disorders, asthenic conditions (decline in body weight, pallor, low efficiency, fatigue) reduced resistance of the organism (common morbidity). the decrease of learning motivation. low self-esteem, increased anxiety, emotional tension.
Signs of successful adaptation
a positive attitude toward school, and adequately perceive the requirements of the teacher, easy to assimilate new learning material diligently performs tasks without outside control, showing independence, has good status in the team
How to help your child?
1. Follow the regime of the day. The child should have proper sleep and eating, walking, feasible physical activity (exercises, games, interesting homework, and leisure and free time. Try to identify the child in the house his personal territory – his room, or at least a corner where he is the master. Also the child needs personal time that he can do what you want it to him.
2. Accompany your child to school friendly! Try to accompany your child to school with kind words and wishes of good luck and success, do not demanding requirements. Meeting the child after school, not to bother him with questions, but let them know that you are interested in his school life and you can always talk and listen.
3. Teach your child to Express their feelings. When you talk to the child in the center of your statements should be a description of feelings, emotions, experiences. We need to help the child learn and understand their feelings, so he can independently assess them. The ability to Express feelings is a condition in order to keep them under control.
4. Do not ask and offer. All you want to Express in the form of proposals and cooperation. Discuss everything with your child and provide him the opportunity to make a final decision. Before granting the child independence in connection with the change of its status, the parents should discuss in advance what part of their responsibility they are willing to give a child. Then discuss with your first grader that he is now in charge (for example, collecting portfolio or that all the lessons were done, of course, he can always ask for help when needed etc.)
5. Praise your child. The main encouragement for a child is praise. When you praise your child, be sure to describe the consequences and results, the efforts of the child. Do not compare your child with other children, compare only the previous achievements. For example: you've written recipe is much neater than yesterday. Give your child the opportunity to find evaluation criteria and evaluate their work.
6. Give the student the opportunity to assess the consequences of their actions. If the child has committed a negative act, try to give the child the opportunity to analyze the consequences of their actions. When you speak your mind, do not judge the personality of the child. In no case do not give any diagnoses and prognoses for the future.
7. Do not make to the child overestimated requirements. High expectations of parents are a source of increased anxiety for the child and parents. Try to analyze their requirements to the child and understand what is important to you: good grades or good health and a great mood, your confidential relationship with him.
8. Calmness, only calmness! Your patience and optimism, your calm and confidence will give confidence in their abilities and your first grader.
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